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Dr Jon Kardaztke
Dr. Jon Kardatzke is Curator of the Museum of Ancient Treasures…an exhibition hall filled with 1,000's of rare antiquities, located in downtown Wichita. Dr Jon practiced medicine for more than 30 years in Wichita. His interest in history and archaeology began as a young boy and when he retired in 1997 he set out to fulfill a life long dream. To open a world-class museum right here in his own community. The museum's permanent collection is the result of 20 years of travel and explorations to exotic locations all over the world. The museum fills over 10,000 sq. ft. of exhibits in three halls: The Hall of the Ancients, The Hall of the Royals and The Hall of the Americas. The museum is open 7 days a week from 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. Special rates and guides for group tours. It is located at 250 W. Douglas, Wichita, in the lower level Kiva Mall in the Garvey Center, north of Century II. Free parking is available. To contact Dr. Kardatzke, call (316) 263-1311; or e-mail him at, treasures@intcon.net
2002-08-01 10:47:00
Civil War prisoners
ANSWER:  Prisoner exchanges were a way for captors to avoid the responsibility and burden of guarding, housing, feeding, clothing, and providing medical care for POW's. Exchange of prisoners began with informal agreements between the commanders of the armies after particular battles, but the practice was codified by a cartel between the USA and CSA in July 1862. The cartel was suspended by the US in May 1863, but individual commanders again arranged exchanges and paroles until the US called a halt to all exchanges in early 1864. When the CSA agreed to correct some irregularities in its earlier exchanges, and when it agreed to treat captured black troops equally with whites, the 1862 cartel was again put into operation in early 1865. Commissioners of exchange were appointed by each government, and they exchanged and compared lists and computed how many on each side were to be exchanged. There were official points where prisoners were to be taken for exchange: City Point, VA in the East and Vicksburg in the West. Equal ranks were exchanged equally, and higher ranks could be exchanged for some number of lower ranks according to an agreed upon list of equivalents (e.g. 1 colonel equaled 15 privates). If one side still had prisoners left, after the other side had exhausted its supply of prisoners by exchange, those excess prisoners would be released on parole. Paroled prisoners were returned to their side, but were prohibited by an oath of honor from taking up arms or performing any duty that soldiers normally performed (like garrison or guard duty) until they were properly exchanged. Generally each side maintained parole camps where their paroled soldiers were kept while they awaited exchange, but in other cases the parolee was allowed to return home until exchanged.
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